Description of the national fire regulation framework for buildings
Within Belgium, the federal authorities, the communities, the regions and even the municipal authorities are responsible in various capacities for the prevention of and protection against fire.
The main aspects of the Belgian regulations:
• buildings according to their height and their construction date;
• the functions and uses of buildings;
• land-use planning and the environment;
Apart from Federal Regulations, the Communities and the Regions are responsible for personal services. Depending on the case, several legislations may apply, so it is important to always consider all the regulatory aspects involved in a building and its use.
GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE BELGIAN CODES ON FIRE PREVENTION:
Determine the minimum conditions to be met by the design, construction and layout of buildings in order to:
(a) prevent the birth, development and spread of a fire;
(b) ensure the safety of persons;
(c) facilitate the intervention of the fire department.
Scheme for obtaining building permission
Regional authorities are in charge of regulations related to urban planning and building permits. Each region has its urban planning code. Local authorities manage the building permits.
Requirements for performance declaration for building components
Fire behavior in case of fire of a construction element is appreciated according to its resistance to fire but also by the fire reaction of its constituent materials.
The reaction to fire of a material characterizes, among other things, its ability to be combustible and its ability to ignite. Seven criteria define the European classification (Euroclasses) for building materials. Fire resistance is the time during which building elements can play their role. 3 criteria (Eurocodes) are used to determine it: bearing capacity or resistance (R), flame tightness and absence of gas emission (E) and thermal insulation (I).
Fire doors have to be of the type EI1.
Title of the overall building regulations where fire safety is regulated