Fire and security National Regulations
The building codes in Austria are specified by the governments of 9 federal states. These building codes are subsequently referring to guidelines of the Austrian Institute of construction engineering (OIB guidelines).
The OIB Guidelines serve to harmonise the construction engineering regulations in Austria. The federal states may declare OIB Guidelines as binding in their building codes- in fact- all federal states did so by now.
The OIB Guidelines are organised according to basic requirements for construction works of the EU Construction Products Directive.
The OIB Guidelines are designed and handled as prescriptive fire safety design rules, but it is also possible to use performance based approaches. This means that the guidelines are designed as prescriptive fire safety design rules, which should be followed to show the applicability and approvability of a fire safety design to the local building authorities. But in any case, it is possible to deviate from the prescriptive rules, if it is demonstrated by comprehensible and conclusive arguments that the required level of safety is achieved. The required level of safety is derived from comparison with a solution, which follows the OIB guidelines.
The possibility to deviate from prescriptive rules is intended to ensure the necessary flexibility for innovative architectural and technical solutions.
Austria has adopted the EU harmonized system for classification of resistance to fire and reaction to fire. A list of adopted product standards for CE marking is given in the Austrian “building products catalogue ÖE”:
A second building material list (ÖA) serves to establish usage regulations for construction products for which no harmonised technical specifications exist and which therefore cannot bear the CE mark.
Note that a CE mark is not considered as an approval for the use of a given product in a specific application. It is just a declaration of selected properties described in the product standard.
The guidelines are the same as for prescriptive fire safety design. The reason is, that the bundle of OIB-guidelines are mainly focused on prescriptive fire safety design. But the OIB-guidelines offer the possibility to deviate from prescriptive rules if comprehensible and conclusive arguments are used to verify that the planned solution offers the same level of safety (as compared to a prescriptive solution).
Fire National Regulation Security National Regulation
Within Belgium, the federal authorities, the communities, the regions and even the municipal authorities are responsible in various capacities for the prevention of and protection against fire.
The main aspects of the Belgian regulations:
• buildings according to their height and their construction date;
• the functions and uses of buildings;
• land-use planning and the environment;
Apart from Federal Regulations, the Communities and the Regions are responsible for personal services. Depending on the case, several legislations may apply, so it is important to always consider all the regulatory aspects involved in a building and its use.
Determine the minimum conditions to be met by the design, construction and layout of buildings in order to:
(a) prevent the birth, development and spread of a fire;
(b) ensure the safety of persons;
(c) facilitate the intervention of the fire department.
Royal decrees and update
weapons / dogs
buildings or similar
25.04.2007 Royal decree conditions of installation, maintenance and use of alarm systems and management of alarm centres (3)
systems for mobile products
Full reference of the main texts – status as at 1.07.2022
1. 2.10.2017 Loi réglementant la sécurité privée et particulière
2. 25.12.2017 Arrêté royal relatif à l’autorisation et au renouvellement d’autorisation des entreprises de systèmes d’alarme –
3. 25.04.2007 Arrêté royal fixant les conditions d’installation, d’entretien et d’utilisation des systèmes d’alarme et de gestion de centraux d’alarme
4. 12.11.2017 Arrêté royal relatif à l’autorisation et au renouvellement d’autorisation des entreprises de systèmes caméra
5. 20.05.2022 Arrêté royal réglant certaines méthodes de surveillance et de protection du transport de valeurs et relatif aux spécificités techniques des véhicules de transport de valeurs
6. 25.04.2021 Arrêté royal relatif au nombre minimum de personnel et aux moyens organisationnels, techniques et d’infrastructure des entreprises de gardiennage, des services internes de gardiennage et des services de sécurité
More about the authority in charge of the Law 2 10 2017 regulating private and special security of private security:
– Ministry of Interior – Direction Générale Sécurité et Prévention
ANPI in charge of control of the installers
web platform :
Other approval schemes can be required by specific fields such as Banks
The technical regulations are based on functional requirements of fire safety concerning safety of occupants, load-bearing elements, generation and spread of fire and smoke and safety and operation for the rescue department. The Danish building regulation consists of app. 560 paragraphs divided into 37 chapters. The building regulation consists of performance based requirements, only for fire safety installations it is prescribed when a building or fire compartment need different systems.
Buildings in Denmark are categorized based on the use of the building, occupancy, risk, complexity and method of documentation. With introduction of Building Regulation 2018 fire and risk classes are introduced. If a building is placed in fire class 2-4 a certified fire safety engineer is responsible for the fire safety design of the building. The fire classes depend on the risk class and the method of documentation, where fire class 4 is the highest class.
The building regulation is supplemented with a set of guidelines. The main guideline describes the overall frame to fulfil the performance based requirements. For traditional buildings a set of prescriptive solutions for different building types are available. These solutions give the acceptable level of safety determined by the society.
If the building design is more complex and the prescriptive solution does not apply the fire safety can be documented using comparative analysis, fire safety engineering methods or fire tests. The method of documentation can also be a combination of the mentioned methods. Often the majority of the fire safety design is based on prescriptive solutions. Hence if the building is too complex and the prescriptive solutions do no apply larger part of the fire safety design is based on performance based design.
Besides the overall guideline for fire safety new guidelines concerning fire safety installations, operation and maintenance, documentation of fire safety means, and the responsibilities and role for the certified fire safety consultant is introduced with Building Regulation 2018
In the current scheme the contractor hands in a complete building design to the local building authorities. The building design includes drawings, descriptions and calculations. The fire safety design must be documented in a fire strategy report and in drawings (fire plans) illustrating the location of all fire safety measures. If the building is placed in fire class 2-4 a certified fire safety engineer is responsible for the fire safety design and as a part of the building application the certified fire safety engineer shall fill out a “Declaration of commencement”.
The authorities will then deem whether the building is placed in the correct risk and fire class. If the documentation is sufficient a building permit is given.
When the building is ready for commissioning the certified fire safety engineer shall prepare “as build” documentation for the fire safety design, including declaration of completion, fire plans, fire strategy report, check report and a plan for operation, inspection and maintenance.
Generally, Denmark has adopted the EU harmonized system for classification of resistance and reaction to fire. Though, some specific product standards and levels of classifications are not referred to in the Danish building regulation or the related guidelines.
A list of adopted product standards for CE marking can be generated from the Danish “product contact point for construction”: http://danishcprcontactpoint.dk/about_pkb
§ 1. Lovens regler om vagtvirksomhed finder anvendelse på enhver selvstændig virksomhed, hvorved personer
§ 2. Den, der udøver vagtvirksomhed eller indgår aftale herom, skal have autorisation hertil.
Stk. 3. Kontrolcentraler, hvorfra der til politiet videregives alarminformationer fra anlæg som nævnt i § 1, stk. 1, nr. 4, skal være godkendt hertil, jf. § 9.
§ 9. Alarminformationer fra overfalds- og indbrudsalarmeringsanlæg må kun videregives til politiet af personalet i en kontrolcentral, der er godkendt hertil. Når særlige politimæssige hensyn taler derfor, kan der gives tilladelse til, at alarminformationer fra overfaldsalarmeringsanlæg indføres direkte til politiet.
on the professional cross-border transport of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States
Full reference of the main texts
More about the authority in charge
Security National Regulation
Full reference of the main texts
act is available only in finnish (translated: Private Security Services Act)
More about the authority in charge
National law and police monitor and issue permits
There is also in Finland:
SETI Personal and Company Assessment Limited company Ltd
SETI Personal and Company Assessment Ltd is an independent and objective assessor of electrical qualifications according to the Electrical Safety Act, nominated by TUKES (Finnish Safety and Chemicals Agency)
In terms of fire, the regulations essentially aim to ensure that people are protected. It is important to:
– evacuate all people present quickly or defer their evacuation under maximum security conditions,
– restrict the spread of the fire inside and outside buildings,
– enable access and intervention by the emergency and fire services.
The regulatory texts will therefore lay down protective measures with a view to reducing or containing the effects of the fire. The regulations relating to the prevention of fire risks are substantial and often complex.
In fact, premises which come under the Code du travail [French employment law], ICPE-classified facilities (Installations Classées pour la Protection de l’Environnement – Facilities Classified for Environmental Protection), ERP buildings (Établissements Recevant du Public – Public Access Buildings), IGH buildings (Immeubles de Grande Hauteur – High-Rise Buildings) and residential premises are all establishments that are governed by different regulatory texts.
It is up to employers to choose solutions which enable them to respect all of the texts to which they are subject.
In lot of cases, a building permit is required. In general, it concerns large-scale construction work. However, it also applies to several other cases (enlargements, transformation of use of the construction …). The application for a building permit must be sent or deposited at the town hall.
Fire behavior in case of fire of a component is appreciated according to its resistance to fire but also by the fire reaction of its constituent materials.
The reaction to fire of a material characterizes, among other things, its ability to be combustible and its ability to ignite. Seven criteria define the European classification (Euroclasses) for building materials. The “fl” (floor) index is added specifically for soil materials.
Fire resistance is the time during which building elements can play their role. 3 criteria (Eurocodes) are used to determine it: bearing capacity or resistance (R), flame tightness and absence of gas emission (E) and thermal insulation (I).
Code de la construction et de l’habitation (CCH) – Titre II – Chapitre II : Dispositions de sécurité relatives aux immeubles de grande hauteur.
https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCode.do;jsessionid=157F1553D6E4A2DE8C34DFDDFF643786.tplgfr41s_3?idSectionTA=LEGISCTA000006143515 &cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006074096& dateTexte=20180701
Code de la construction et de l’habitation (CCH) – Titre II – Chapitre III : Protection contre les risques d’incendie et de panique dans les immeubles recevant du public.
Guide pratique relatif à la sécurité incendie dans les parcs de stationnement couverts ouverts au public.
Guide pratique relatif à la sécurité incendie dans les magasins de vente et les centres commerciaux
The building fire regulations in Germany consist of three levels:
− Building code of the 16 federal states, which are based on the national model building code as national framework and but may consist different provisions in detail, e.g. permissible area of fire compartment or minimum required size of opening in the external wall as part of the second escape routes
− Additional regulations for special type of buildings or building with special using, e.g. high rise and industrial buildings (see part D)
− selected standards as technical building regulations that are bindingly implemented by the building authority of federal states, e.g. Euro-codes
Note: In the course of building permission, recommendations of the insurers are often and in individual cases used for the design of fire protection systems. e. g. for sprinkler and other fire suppression systems.
A building permission is still required for special type of buildings or buildings with special using, also in case of possible constructional modification and change of the using.
The Buildings permission must be granted if a building meets all requirements of building code and additional building regulations.
In case of some deviations from the existing fire regulations, a fire protection verification or fire protection concept is required, established by a fire protection expert and checked by the local construction supervisory authorities or by an approved fire protection expert. In addition, the local fire department should be also heard and involved in course of the building permission.
The requirements on building components are defined in the
− administrative technical building regulations of the federal states that are based on the national model administrative technical building regulations as national framework and
− mandated European standards for building componentsIn administrative technical building regulations of the federal states, building- and construction-related requirements are defined.
For marketing and using of European construction components, declaration of the performance must be carried out in accordance with European regulations, e.g. with the CE mark.
Musterverwaltungsvorschriften Technische Baubestimmungen (MVV TB)
Verordnung über Bau von Betriebsräumen für eletrische Analgen
Richtlinie über den Bau und Betrieb von Hochhäusern
Richtlinie über den Brandschutz bei der Lagerung von Sekundärstoffen aus Kunststoff
Richtlinie zur Bemessung von Löschwasser-Rückhalteanlagen beim Lagern wassergefährdenderStoffe
Other relevant documents regarding general fire safety regulations
Richtlinie über brandschutztechnische Anforderungen an hochfeuer-hemmende Bauteile in Holzbauweise
Richtlinie über brandschutztechnische Anforderungen an Systemböden
Richtlinie über automatische Schiebetüren in Rettungswegen
Richtlinie über elektrische Verriegelunbgssysteme von Türen in Rettungswegen
Richtlinie über Flächen für die Feuerwehr
All companies and their staff have to be registered at a national federal register (“Bewacherregister”)
Police lists of installers
Police organisations of the federal states
Police list of installers
VdS MARC Certification (VdS 3138)
VdS Schadenverhütung GmbH
The Legislation related to the Fire Protection of Buildings in Greece consists of:
The New Regulation for the Fire Protection of Buildings incorporates:
Active and passive fire protection study and drawings is a subfile part of the complete file of documents needed for obtaining the building permission prior to any building works.
After completion of the works, a “building inspector” randomly assigned by the competent authority (named “POLEODOMIA”) makes the final inspection for the implementation of studies and drawings. This is the necessary final (prerequisite) step for applying to the Hellenic Electricity Distribution Network Operator (HEDNO) and getting a connection with the electricity network.
CE marking and Declaration of Performance, in accordance with CPR 305/2011
Regulation for the Fire Protection of Buildings (Presidential Decree 41/2018)
HELLENIC FIRE DEPARTMENT CIRCULARS
In Italy Fire fighters are a National Corp, part of the Ministery of Interior Affairs. The National Corp has two main tasks: extinguishing interventions and fire prevention.
Italian law DPR 1/08/2011 no. 151 contains a list of 80 activities which are subject to Fire fighters’ control for fire prevention.
All of these activities are considered as having a higher fire risk, and normally have a threshold: for example, commercial activities over 400 sqm, car parks over 300 sqm, hotels over 25 beds, civil buildings higher than 24 m.
If an activity is under the threshold, it’s not subject to Fire fighters’ control and it only has to apply the safety at work rules, which include also a part about fire safety, with less requirements.
If an activity is subject to Fire fighters’ control, various technical Codes contain the technical requirements, which can vary depending on the precise activity. The total number of codes is unknown, certainly hundreds, but the main Codes are about 20/30 (see list below).
In 2015 the so-called “Fire Safety Code” (“Codice di prevenzione incendi”, Ministerial Decree 3.8.2015) has been released. Based on the BS 9999, it’s a general code and applies to all activities. Presently the fire engineer can choose whether to apply the new Code or the “old” codes, when existing; if an activity does not have its own technical code, the new “Fire Safety Code” has to be applied.
Fire Safety Engineering is allowed in Italy starting from 2007 but it’s still not widely used. If a fire engineer wants to use the FSE, there is a procedure to follow, but for technical requirements the FSE is alternative to the various Codes.
In Italy the fire engineers must be a qualified technician (Engineers, Architects, Junior Engineers, System technicians) inscribed in a professional register; then he/she must attend a 120 hours professional training organized by the Ministery of Interior Affairs and, after passing the final exam, he/she is inscribed in a list of fire engineers at the Ministery of Interior. Then periodic training is required in order to remain inside the list.
The manager of one (or more) of activities subject to Fire fighters’ control must follow a precise procedure:
1) Submitting to Fire fighters’ Command of the province (Italy is divided in 87 provinces) a project which demonstrated the compliance to the applicable Code (or, in case of use of FSE, the compliance to the fire simulation).
2) At the end of the works, submitting to Fire fighters a number of documents (certifications, declarations, etc.), the SCIA – Segnalazione Certificata di Inizio Attività (Certified segnalation of activity beginning, signed by the activity manager), with a certification (“Asseverazione”) signed by a technician who declares that the activity has been built according to the fire safety project and to the applicable fire safety codes.The SCIA submitted to Fire fighters is the document which allows an activity to operate.
3) Later, Fire fighters can make inspections and, if positive, they release the Fire certificate (CPI – Certificato di prevenzione incendi) or, sometimes, an equivalent certificate named Verbale di visita tecnica.
4) If the inspection is negative, various solutions are possible, including the closure of activity and/or the opening of a criminal charge.
5) Every 5 years, the manager has to proceed with the renewal of fire safety conformity.
6) If relevant changes are needed in the activity (dimensions, combustible materials, change in the activity, etc), a new project must be submitted
When a SCIA has to be submitted, D.M. 7.8.2012 regulates which documents have to be attached, depending on the activity. Normally a SCIA requires documents regarding:
DPR 1 agosto 2011 n° 151
This link contains most of Italian fire safety codes.The book Tutte le norme di prevenzione incendi, EPC Libri, Rome 2007, containing all codes (past and current) is about 3000 pages.
Circolare M.I. DCPREV 5043 del 15 aprile 2013
Circolare 2/2018 del 15 novembre 2018
No guideline available. Performance based design can proceed only according with national law D.M. 9.5.2007.
In Portugal, the fire safety framework for permanent, temporary or itinerant buildings and enclosures is homogeneously applicable throughout the national territory, with the necessary adaptations for the Autonomous Regions of Azores and Madeira.
The main aspects of the Portuguese regulations:
GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE PORTUGUESE FIRE REGULATION FRAMEWORK FOR BUILDINGS:
Determine the minimum conditions to be met by the design, construction and layout of buildings to:
(a) Reduce the probability of a fire occurrence;
(b) Limit the development of eventual incidents, circumscribing and minimizing their effects, like smoke or gases;
(c) Facilitate the evacuation and rescue of occupants at risk;
(d) Allow an effective and safe intervention of the rescue teams.
The legal procedure in which a licensing process for a building takes place varies taking into account various aspects such as the type of construction work, the location, the Typical-Use to be developed in the building, among others.
In a licensing application, the most complex legal communication procedure, an architectural project is delivered to the City Council, which must be approved. After the project approval, or simultaneously with the delivery of the architectural project, specialty projects that include the technical specifications necessary for the construction of the building and/or the installation of various equipment must be submitted, differing their application and implementation in the type of work to be performed.
Examples of specialty projects are: water and sewage networks project; power supply and distribution project; telephone and telecommunications installations project; gas installation project; ventilation, smoke exhaust and air conditioning project; fire safety project, among others. Each specialty project needs its own regulamentation and an advisory opinion from the respective entities that regulate them.
After approval of the projects presented, and when construction works are required, whether we are dealing with a new construction or an existing building, a Construction License must be requested from the respective City Council. Once the works are completed, it is necessary to present the documents proving the execution of the works as expected and in full compliance with legal requirements in order to be issued the License for Use.
In some situations, by decision of the City Council, an inspection must be required to issue a License for Use.
Fire behavior of construction elements for which Portuguese legislation requires a particular fire performance shall be proved by a classification report issued by a notified body.
Portuguese fire safety legislation defines clearly the fire resistance classes that construction elements of a building need to comply with, depending on the type of building and risk category. Similarly, Portuguese legislation defines also the fire reaction classes that construction materials of a building need to comply with.
In Portugal, the fire performance of construction products is based on the corresponding European Classification.
Building Fire Safety Legal Regime (Regime Jurídico de Segurança contra Incêndio em Edifícios) published by Law No. 123/2019, of 18 october (Lei nº 123/2019, de 18 de outubro), which amended for the third time the Decree-Law No. 220/2008, of 12 november (Decreto-Lei nº 220/2008, de 12 de novembro)
Link to Law No. 123/2019, of 18 october (PT):
Building Fire Safety Technical Regulation (Regulamento Técnico de Segurança contra Incêndio em Edifícios) published by Ordinance No. 135/2020, of 2 june (Portaria nº 135/2020, de 2 de junho), which amended for the first time the Ordinance No. 1532/2008, of 29 december (Portaria nº 1532/2008, de 29 de dezembro).
Link to Ordinance No. 135/2020, of 2 june (PT):
Regulation for Registration of trade, installation and maintenance of fire safety systems and equipment’s companies at the National Emergency and Civil Protection Authority (Registo de entidades com atividade de comercialização, instalação ou manutenção de equipamentos e sistemas de segurança contra incêndio na Autoridade Nacional de Emergência e Proteção Civil) published by Ordinance No. 208/2020, of 1 september (Portaria nº 208/2020, de 1 de setembro) which amended the Ordinance 773/2009, of 21 july (Portaria nº 773/2009, de 21 de julho).
Link to Order No. 208/2020, of 1 september (PT):
Accreditation Regulation of Responsible Technicians of fire safety companies at the National Emergency and Civil Protection Authority (Regulamento para Acreditação de Técnicos Responsáveis das entidades com atividade de segurança contra incêndio em edifícios na Autoridade Nacional de Emergência e Proteção Civil) published by Decree-Law No. 11832/2021, of 30 november (Decreto-Lei nº 11832/2021, de 30 de novembro).
Link to Decree-Law No. 11832/2021, of 30 november (PT):
Link to Decree-Law No. 8954/2020, of 18 september (PT):
Link to Order No. 8903/2020, of 17 september (PT):
Technical Note 13 – Wet and dry nets (Nota Técnica Nº 13 – redes secas e húmidas), published by Order Nº 8904/2020, of 17 september (Despacho nº 8904/2020, de 17 de setembro)
Link to Order No. 8904/2020, of 17 september (PT):
Technical Note 14 – Sources of water supply for the fire service systems (Nota Técnica Nº 14 – fontes abastecedoras de água para o serviço de incêndio), published by Order Nº 8902/2020, of 17 september (Despacho nº 8902/2020, de 17 de setembro)
Link to Order No. 8902/2020, of 17 september (PT):
Technical Note 15 – Pumping stations for the fire service systems (Nota Técnica nº 15 – centrais de bombagem para o serviço de incêndio), published by Order Nº 8905/2020, of 17 september (Despacho nº 8905/2020, de 17 de setembro)
Link to Order No. 8905/2020, of 17 september (PT):
Technical Note 16 – Automatic water fire extinguishing systems (Nota Técnica nº 16 – sistemas automáticos de extinção de incêndio por água), published by Order No. 8953/2020, of 18 september (Despacho nº 8953/2020, de 18 de setembro)
Link to Order No. 8953/2020, of 18 september (PT):
Technical Note 17 – Automatic fire extinguishing systems using gaseous agents (Nota Técnica nº 17 – sistemas automáticos de extinção de incêndio por agentes gasosos), published by Order No. 8955/2020, of 18 september (Despacho nº 8955/2020, de 18 de setembro)
Link to Order No. 8955/2020, of 18 september (PT):
The Portuguese National Emergency and Civil Protection Authority (Autoridade Nacional de Emergência e Proteção Civil – ANEPC) published Technical Notes that have a set of technical specifications that aim to complement fire safety legislation.
They clearly define the safety requirements to be implemented by the authors of architectural and specialty projects, as well as by the direction and supervision of the work in its implementation at the construction phase, by companies that sell or carry out installation and maintenance work on fire safety equipment and systems and by those responsible for the security of buildings in their operation phase.
Some of these Technical Notes have legal nature with publication in Order, these are mandatory implementation.
Technical Note 1 – Typical-uses for buildings and enclosures
Technical Note 2 – Competencies and Responsibilities in fire safety in buildings
Technical Note 3 – Fire Safety Projects
Technical Note 4 – Graphic symbology for Fire Safety Projects Plants
Technical Note 5 – Risk Categories
Technical Note 6 – Hazardous Locations
Technical Note 7 – Outdoors hydrants
Technical Note 8 – Level of reaction of rescue services – Order No. 8903/2020, of 17 september (Despacho nº 8903/2020 de 17 de setembro)
Technical Note 9 – Passive Protection Systems – Sealing gaps, openings for the passage of cabling and ducts
Technical Note 10 – Passive Protection Systems – Fire doors
Technical Note 11 – Safety Signs
Technical Note 12 – Automatic Fire Detection Systems
Technical Note 13 – Wet and dry nets – Order Nº 8904/2020, of 17 september (Despacho nº 8904/2020, de 17 de setembro)
Technical Note 14 – Sources of water supply for the fire service systems – Order Nº 8902/2020, of 17 september (Despacho nº 8902/2020, de 17 de setembro)
Technical Note 15 – Pumping stations for the fire service systems – Order Nº 8905/2020, of 17 september (Despacho nº 8905/2020, de 17 de setembro)
Technical Note 16 – Automatic water fire extinguishing systems – Order No. 8953/2020, of 18 september (Despacho nº 8953/2020, de 18 de setembro)
Technical Note 17 – Automatic fire extinguishing systems using gaseous agents – Order No. 8955/2020, of 18 september (Despacho nº 8955/2020, de 18 de setembro)
Technical Note 18 – Water Curtain Systems
Technical Note 19 – Automatic gas detection systems
Technical Note 20 – Security Post
Technical Note 21 – Fire protection management system
Technical Note 22 – Emergency Plants
Technical Note 23 – Emergency lighting
Technical Note 24 – Fire Safety Glossary
Technical Note 25 – Transport Stations
Technical Note 26 – Temporary and Itinerant Enclosures
Technical Note 27 – Smoke Control
Technical Note 28 – Fire behavior of construction products
Technical Note 29 – Lightning Protection
Technical Note 30 – Fires in batteries
They are available for consultation and download at the National Emergency and Civil Protection Authority website.
Link to the National Emergency and Civil Protection Authority website:
Information revised at june 2022
Ordinance 292/2020, of 18th December
Ordinance 272/2013, of 20th August
1 The surveillance of buildings and control of entry, presence, and exit of persons, as well as the prevention of the entry of weapons, prohibited substances and articles inside buildings or other places, public or private, of restricted access to the public, can only be carried out by private Security companies with type A permit.
Private security companies which have this type of permit can also be responsible for the screening, inspection and filtering of baggage and cargo and the control of passengers in the access to security restricted areas at ports and airports, as well as the prevention of the entry of prohibited substances and articles in the airports, ports and the interior of aircraft and ships, without prejudice to the exclusive competences of security forces and services.
Personal protection also requires a permit. In this case, the appropriate type is B.
2 By article 4-A of Law nº 46/2019, of 8 July, entities that provide study and design, installation or maintenance of security equipment and systems or alarm receiving centers are required to register (Registo Prévio) in the National Directorate of the Public Security Police.
This registration implies that entities comply with the procedures and requirements stipulated in Ordinance No. 272/2013, of August 20, amended by Ordinance No. 105/2015, of August 13.
The responsible technician is the figure that provides technical competence to these entities and needs to prove qualifications or training complying with the same Ordinance.
3 The management of alarm receiving centres is carried out by private security entities that hold a type C permit. This permit also authorizes the installation and maintenance of electronic security systems.
4 The transport, safekeeping, treatment and distribution of funds and valuables and other objects that, due to their economic value may require special protection, can only be carried out by private security entities with type D permits.
Under Law No. 53/2007, of 31 August, the Public Security Police (PSP – Polícia de Segurança Pública) has the competence for the control, licensing and supervision of private security activities and organization of self-protection services.
PSP attributions are exercised by the Private Security Department of the National Directorate. The supervision of the activities regulated by law 46/2019 is ensured by PSP National Directorate in conjunction with the Authority for Working Conditions and the Tax and Customs Authority, without prejudice to the powers of other security forces and services and the General Inspectorate of Internal Administration.
Other relevant legislation
You can access the most relevant legal diplomas concerning private security and security systems through the following links on the APSEI´s website:
The national fire safety regulations are based on requirements of fire safety of occupants (people and animals), premises and environment. In Fire Protection Act, issued by Ministry of Defence, there are listed requirements, that Building regulation requirements (Building Act, published by Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning in 2017) shall be fulfilled: appliances, equipment, installations, elements and assemblies of structures shall be constructed and designed in the manner and from materials so as to ensure fire safety in compliance with the building regulations and technical requirements for building materials (according to EN standards). During the reconstruction and maintenance, fire safety of buildings must not be reduced. There are two ways to design a building that satisfies the requirements; prescribed design and performance based design. Both methods are equally valid.
Prescribed design is used more frequently, according to Technical guideline TSG 1-001, Fire safety in buildings, which is published by the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning.
Remark: Slovenian Fire Protection Association is preparing the basis of TSG 1-001 since 2007. The last version (No. 4.1) was published in 2020.
In the current scheme the investor hands in a complete building design (prepared by registered engineering company) to the national building authorities, located in (58) offices in larger municipalities. The building design includes drawings, descriptions, calculations. The fire safety design must be documented in a fire strategy document and in drawings illustrating the location of all fire safety measures. The document is called Nacrt pozarne varnosti and it has to be made by “fire engineers”, members of The Slovenian Chamber of Engineers, Section of Engineers of Technology and Other Engineers.
Remark: In practice, the local building authorities usually don’t have experts who could check the design and are not able to approve the design or not, so they give the building permission if formal conditions are met.
Slovenia has adopted the EU harmonized system for classification of resistance to fire and reaction to fire. A list of adopted product standards is published regularly in the Slovenian Official Journal.
Building Act / Gradbeni zakon
Guidelines regarding prescriptive fire safety design
Tehnična smernica za graditev TSG-1-001:2019 Požarna varnost v stavbah
Zakon o varstvu pred požarom
A buildings fire protection shall be designed with adequate robustness to ensure all or large parts of the protection are not knocked out by individual events or stresses. There are two ways to design a building that satisfies the requirements; prescribed design and performance based design. Both methods are equally valid. Often the fire safety design of a building is based on a combination of both methods.
Prescriptive design: Prescriptive design means that the builder meets the requirements through the solutions and methods specified in the general recommendations in Sections 5:2-5:7 in the building regulations.
Performance based (analytical) design: Analytical design means that the developer meets one or more of the provisions in this section througha way other than prescriptive design.
Verification of the building’s fire protection shall be performed through
– qualitative assessment,
– scenario analysis,
– quantitative risk analysis,
or equivalent methods. The methods can also be combined.The verification method shall be chosen for the specific object in view of the complexity of the fire protection.
Regarding buildings with high hazard storage or production, there is an extra “layer” of fire safety legislation. These regulations are prescriptive only.
A qualitative assessment may be used as a verification method if the deviations from the prescriptive design are limited. The same applies if the impact of the design on fire safety is well known and if the design satisfies the provisions with a large safety margin.
To ensure that buildings are designed and constructed in accordance with relevant regulations, the developer of the building should at an early stage consider the need for the relevant competency for the respective tasks which together with the conditions for the design and construction are presented to local authorities to form the basis of the inspection plan.
Fire protection documentation shall be prepared. This shall include information about the preconditions for the fire protection and how the constructed building’s fire protection is designed, along with verification that the fire protection complies with the requirements in Boverket ́s mandatory provisions and general recommendations on the application of European construction standards (Eurocodes), EKS.
Generally, Sweden has adopted the EU harmonized system for classification of resistance to fire and reaction to fire.
Note that a CE mark is not considered as an approval for the use of a given product in a specific application. It is just a declaration of selected properties described in the product standard. The person who is going to use a building component must obtain the information in the performance declaration and the CE marking to determine if the product can be used to meet the country’s building rules.
Boverkets föreskrifter och allmänna råd om tillämpning av europeiska konstruktionsstandarder (eurokoder)
Boverkets allmänna råd om analytisk dimensionering av byggnaders brandskydd
Plan och byggförordning
Plan och bygglag
SFS 1983:1097 larmlagen
(Law regarding Guarding etc.)
(Law regarding alarms)
(Law regarding CCTV)
Spain has two main types of regulation of fire protection: for industrial buildings and for non-industrial buildings.
These regulations establish the provision of fire safety means in each type of building, both in the field of construction and in the field of installations.
There are also requirements to be fulfilled by the fire protection products, installations, installers and maintainers, stated in a different regulation. In essence, this regulation indicates that the products to be installed must have some kind of quality certification, that the facilities must be designed according to the appropiate UNE standard, and that installers and maintainers must be specifically authorized to develop said functions. This regulation only states requirements in the field of active fire protection.
The scope of passive protection, except as regards the quality requirements of elements or products, is not regulated.
There are for the industrial field complementary regulations for petrol-oil installations, storage facilities for chemical products, thermal installations in buildings, high voltage networks, low voltage networks … that among the security requirements to be considered, incorporate fire safety requirements.
In any case, all legislation revolves around three major objectives, in this order:
– Guarantee the safety of lives.
– Minimize damage to third parties.
– Minimize own property damages.
Spain has adopted the Eurocodes and Euroclasses to classify the fire resistance and fire reaction of the products.
For the components of fire protection installations, the CE mark, a mark of conformity to a non-harmonized standard, or a favorable technical evaluation of the product made by an accredited body, are accepted.
Regulation for the provision of fire protection means: • Buildings with Industrial Use: Reglamento de Seguridad contra Incendios en Establecimientos Industriales, RD 2267/2004.
Regulation for products, installation, installers and maintainers of active fire protection systems:
All the regulations mentioned in the previous section are mandatory and prescriptive, although both RD 2267/2004 and RD 314/2006 give the possibility to justify an equivalent safety level based on performance.
In Spain, the SFPE Engineering Guide for Performance Based Fire Protection, and the UNE-ISO 23932, Fire safety engineering, General principles, are used as reference for performance based fire safety design.
Other regulations on Industrial safety that include important prescriptions in the field of fire:
Real Decreto 2364/1994, de 9 de diciembre, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento de Seguridad Privada.
(Royal Decree 2364/1994, of December 9, approving the Private Security Regulations)
More about the authority in charge: General Directorate of the Police in urban environments and
General Directorate of the Civil Guard in rural environments, both departments under the ministry of the interior
Full reference of the main texts
In the UK there is a 2 strand approach. Building Regulations 1984 is the law and regulates the way people and companies build. This regulation is assisted by “guidance” for particular types of buildings, such as Approved Documents and various BS standards. Building regulations are mandatory, but the guidance is considered “best practice” Meaning of “general fire precautions” 1) In this Order “general fire precautions” in relation to premises means, subject to paragraph (2)— (a)measures to reduce the risk of fire on the premises and the risk of the spread of fire on the premises; (b)measures in relation to the means of escape from the premises; (c)measures for securing that, at all material times, the means of escape can be safely and effectively used; (d)measures in relation to the means for fighting fires on the premises; (e)measures in relation to the means for detecting fire on the premises and giving warning in case of fire on the premises; and (f)measures in relation to the arrangements for action to be taken in the event of fire on the premises, including— (i)measures relating to the instruction and training of employees; and (ii)measures to mitigate the effects of the fire. (2) The precautions referred to in paragraph (1) do not include special, technical or organisational measures required to be taken or observed in any workplace in connection with the carrying on of any work process, where those measures — (a)are designed to prevent or reduce the likelihood of fire arising from such a work process or reduce its intensity; and (b)are required to be taken or observed to ensure compliance with any requirement of the relevant statutory provisions within the meaning given by section 53(1) of the Health and Safety at Work etc 1974(1). (3) In paragraph (2) “work process” means all aspects of work involving, or in connection with— (a)the use of plant or machinery; or (b)the use or storage of any dangerous substance.
Regional authorities are in charge of regulations related to planning and building permits. Local authorities manage the building permits through the LABC local Authority Building Control.
The reaction to fire of a material characterizes, among other things, its ability to be combustible and its ability to ignite. Seven criteria define the European classification (Euroclasses) for building materials.
Overview of Act
(1)This Act has 6 Parts, and contains provisions intended to secure the safety of people in or about buildings and to improve the standard of buildings.
(2)Part 2 contains provision about the building safety regulator and its functions in relation to buildings in England.
(3)Part 3 amends the Building Act 1984.
(4)Amendments made by Part 3—
(a)provide that the regulator is the building control authority in relation to higher-risk buildings in England, and
(b)require the regulator (for England) and the Welsh Ministers (for Wales) to establish and maintain registers of building control approvers and building inspectors.
(5)Part 4 is about occupied higher-risk buildings in England, and imposes duties on accountable persons.
(6)Part 5 contains further provisions, including—
(a)provisions about remediation and redress;
(b)provision requiring a new homes ombudsman scheme to be established;
(c)powers to make provision about construction products;
(d)further provision about fire safety;
(e)provision about the regulation of architects;
(f)provision about housing complaints.
(7)Part 6 contains general provisions.
We are introducing regulations under article 24 of the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 (Fire Safety Order) to implement the majority of those recommendations made to government in the Grenfell Tower Inquiry Phase 1 report which require a change in the law.
These regulations will make it a requirement in law for responsible persons of high-rise blocks of flats to provide information to Fire and Rescue Services to assist them to plan and, if needed, provide an effective operational response. Also, the regulations will require responsible persons in multi-occupied residential buildings which are high-rise buildings [footnote 1], as well as those above 11 metres in height, to provide additional safety measures. In all multi-occupied residential buildings, the regulations require responsible persons to provide residents with fire safety instructions and information on the importance of fire doors. The regulations apply to existing buildings, and requirements for new buildings may be different.
All can be found on the following link;
AD Part A – Structure
AD Part B – Fire Safety
AD Part C – Site preparation
AD Part D – Toxic substances
AD Part E – Resistance to the passage of Sound
AD Part F – Ventilation
AD Part G – Sanitation
AD Part H – Drainage and Waste Disposal
AD Part J – Combustion appliances and fuel storage systems
AD Part K – Protection from falling collision and impact
AD Part L – Conservation of fuel and power
AD Part M – Access to and use of buildings
AD Part N – Glazing Safety [withdrawn]
AD Part P – Electrical Safety
AD Part Q – Security
AD Part R – Physical infrastructure for high speed electronic communications network
Regulation 7 – Materials and workmanship
NFCC – Specialized Housing Guidance
BS 9999 Code of Practice for Fire Safety in the design management and use of buildings
BS 9990 Non-automatic fire fighting systems in buildings
BS 9991 Firesafety in the design management and use of residential buildings
BSEN 12845 Sprinkler Rules
Ministry of Housing Communities and Local Government Guidance documents on Fire Risk Assessments
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