Members of CFPA Europe


Region: All of Denmark (Greenland and Faroe Islands not included)

Danish Institute of Fire and securi-ty Technology (DBI)

Anders Dragsted
Janne G.L. Frederiksen


Description of the national fire regulation framework for buildings

The technical regulations are based on functional requirements of fire safety concerning safety of occupants, load-bearing elements, generation and spread of fire and smoke and safety and operation for the rescue department. The Danish building regulation consists of app. 560 paragraphs divided into 37 chapters. The building regulation consists of performance based requirements, only for fire safety installations it is prescribed when a building or fire compartment need different systems.

Buildings in Denmark are categorized based on the use of the building, occupancy, risk, complexity and method of documentation. With introduction of Building Regulation 2018 fire and risk classes are introduced. If a building is placed in fire class 2-4 a certified fire safety engineer is responsible for the fire safety design of the building. The fire classes depend on the risk class and the method of documentation, where fire class 4 is the highest class.

The building regulation is supplemented with a set of guidelines. The main guideline describes the overall frame to fulfil the performance based requirements. For traditional buildings a set of prescriptive solutions for different building types are available. These solutions give the acceptable level of safety determined by the society.

If the building design is more complex and the prescriptive solution does not apply the fire safety can be documented using comparative analysis, fire safety engineering methods or fire tests. The method of documentation can also be a combination of the mentioned methods. Often the majority of the fire safety design is based on prescriptive solutions. Hence if the building is too complex and the prescriptive solutions do no apply larger part of the fire safety design is based on performance based design.

Besides the overall guideline for fire safety new guidelines concerning fire safety installations, operation and maintenance, documentation of fire safety means, and the responsibilities and role for the certified fire safety consultant is introduced with Building Regulation 2018

Scheme for obtaining building permission

In the current scheme the contractor hands in a complete building design to the local building authorities. The building design includes drawings, descriptions and calculations. The fire safety design must be documented in a fire strategy report and in drawings (fire plans) illustrating the location of all fire safety measures. If the building is placed in fire class 2-4 a certified fire safety engineer is responsible for the fire safety design and as a part of the building application the certified fire safety engineer shall fill out a “Declaration of commencement”.

The authorities will then deem whether the building is placed in the correct risk and fire class. If the documentation is sufficient a building permit is given.

When the building is ready for commissioning the certified fire safety engineer shall prepare “as build” documentation for the fire safety design, including declaration of completion, fire plans, fire strategy report, check report and a plan for operation, inspection and maintenance.

Requirements for performance declaration for building components

Generally, Denmark has adopted the EU harmonized system for classification of resistance and reaction to fire. Though, some specific product standards and levels of classifications are not referred to in the Danish building regulation or the related guidelines.

A list of adopted product standards for CE marking can be generated from the Danish “product contact point for construction”:

Note that a CE mark is not considered as an approval for the use of a given product in a specific application. It is just a declaration of selected properties described in the product standard.

Title of the overall building regulations where fire safety is regulated

Bygningsreglement 2018

Guidelines regarding prescriptive fire safety design

Bygningsreglementets vejledning om brand - generelt

Guidelines regarding performance based fire safety design

Bygningsreglementets vejledning om brand - generelt

Other relevant documents regarding general fire safety regulations