Monthly Archives: August 2019

High density fireproofing of cannabis

Cannabis Drivhuse

Cannabis is being legalised in an increasing number of countries worldwide. Not least in the USA where, up to now, cannabis for recreational use is legal in 10 states. Also, cannabis is increasingly being legalised for medical use. However, the production of cannabis can entail a number of potential fire hazards that we do not experience in the cultivation of other plants.

The increasing legalisation of cannabis means that, in future, there will be production facilities that cultivate hemp plants on an industrial scale. But, growing cannabis is not the same as growing lettuce or watercress. To grow optimally, the plants require very specific conditions, and these conditions can result in fire technical challenges. Therefore, in the USA, they have drawn up guidelines aimed at facilities for producing and extracting cannabis.

– It’s interesting to take a glance at this because they have had legal production facilities over there for a couple of years now, and they have identified several elements of danger, says Mikael N. Gam, a fire safety consultant with DBI, the Danish Institute of Fire & Security Technogogy.

Heat, CO2 and alcohol
Some of these dangers are related to the plants’ need for light. They require light for up to 18 hours a day, and it must be full-spectrum, which is typically achieved by means of incandescent bulbs, which also emit a great deal of heat.

– In addition, it also requires the addition of CO2 to the air in order to ensure optimal photosynthesis, which means gas bottles, which in the event of a fire pose a risk in themselves. Furthermore, the equipment poses a risk of leakages and carbon monoxide poisoning in the event of a fire, says Mikael N. Gam.

On top of that, the plants grow quickly, and this can make it difficult to gain an overview and hamper the fire fighters’ visibility in their efforts to extinguish the fire.  At the same time, the plants are moved around the production facilities, depending on their size, which can block access routes and escape routes.

– When it comes to extracting the substances in the plant, this is done in the production facility with the help of flammable substances, for example, methane, alcohol or CO2. In addition, the production facilities are often protected against theft and break-ins, and this protection must be arranged in such a way that allows the fire fighting service to gain access quickly in the event of a fire, adds Mikael N. Gam.

Newer, but not more dangerous
Therefore, the task in hand is to deal with all the potential fire technical challenges. There is no single solution, but it is important to think about the layout thoroughly. Moreover, the fire fighting authorities must be aware of any particular risks when they respond to an emergency.

– There are aspects of cannabis production that can lead to problems when it comes to fighting a fire. It is not, as such, any more dangerous than many other things, but it is a new area and therefore we should perhaps take a look at the American guidelines in the area, concludes Mikael N. Gam.

Explosion of white dust on black background.

Dust explosion risks in the metalworking industry

The project has focused on the risks of dust explosions and any fire that may arise in various manufacturing processes where metal dust is formed. The work has included studying available statistics to get a better picture of frequency, cause and effect in connection with explosions that occurred, but also to study some real incidents in detail to give examples of events and in some cases also measures taken to reduce the risk of similar events occurring again. In the project, a limited literature review has also been conducted.

Publisher: RISE | Authors: Ken Nessvi och Henry Persson 601-171 | Year: 2019

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The world’s tallest and safest timber building


The prestige building, Mjøstårnet in Norway, proves that timber can be used when building to a height. The level of fire safety is high with a number of passive measures and a reinforced sprinkler system, which also covers parts of the facade.

In Norway, the world’s tallest timber building is located. It is called Mjøstårnet and was completed in March 2019. The supporting structure comprises enormous glued timber pellets. The stairway and lift shafts are of CLT (Cross Laminated Timber). The same material was also used for the balconies on the upper storeys. The storeys up to the 11th floor comprise a building system of timber and rock wool. And, of course, the facade is also timber.

– Even though we have extensive experience in building with timber in Norway, Mjøstårnet is an unusual building, says Even Andersen, Senior Fire Engineer in Sweco in Norway and fire consultant for Mjøstårnet.

– It is a prestige project in the field of building with timber. The rules in the area have been the same for many years, but it has only been within the last few years that we have started to build to a height with timber. The environmental and climate aspects are of crucial importance in this development, he says.

Withstands a natural progression of a fire
Another aspect that has to be taken into consideration when building timber tower blocks is fire safety.

– The organisation of fire safety is function-based, and takes as its point of departure the presumption that the building must be able to withstand a natural fire progression, which we have modelled on the basis of Eurocode 1, and which takes account of the timber’s contribution to the fire, says Even Andersen.

The pre-accepted solution stipulates that the supporting structure in taller buildings must be non-combustible and be able to withstand a fire for 90 minutes. In the case of Mjøstårnet,  it was decided that the construction must be able to withstand a natural fire progression which corresponds to a standard fire of less than 90 minutes. Moreover, the building must be able to handle a standard fire for 120 minutes.

– All scenarios and fire progressions have been calculated and are far shorter than 90 minutes. Moreover, the supporting structure has an even greater resistance to fire than we assumed was needed, explains Even Andersen.

The fire safety documentation is controlled by a third party, and even though the emergency services do not have a regulatory authority role in Norway, they have been involved in the dialogue along the way.

A timber frame remains
In connection with the construction, Sweco had fire tests carried out on the glued timber pellets of which the supporting structure was to comprise. The pellets were tested by SP Fire Research and were exposed to the ISO Standard fire curve for 90 minutes. The test showed that the pellets developed a carbonised surface which protected the underlying timber against the fire. And, when the furnaces were turned off, the carbonisation stopped by itself after a while.

– The glued timber pellets are of considerable dimensions, and a relatively small section of them burns away in a fire. Therefore, they are fairly resistant in a fire. Also, they are self-extinguishing if there is nothing around them to feed the fire. Based on the tests, we have calculated that, in a fire that is not tackled but is allowed to develop and burn out, the supporting structure maintains its resistance and leaves behind a timber frame, even if the rest of the building burns away, says Even Andersen.

Its excellent properties mean that the glued timber pellets do not require any further protection or covering, but that they can be visible in the tower’s interior. Any visible timber in escape routes and the stairwell has been fireproofed.

A multitude of fire sections and cells
The weak points in the structure are the steel plates and the dowels placed at the pellet joints. Therefore, spaces and gaps around the joints are endowed with a material that expands at 150 degrees and protects the joints. Each storey constitutes its own fire section, and every single hotel room and apartment is its own fire cell. Every horizontal division structure is dimensioned to be able to remain standing if the overlying horizontal division structure collapses. The horizontal division structures for the top floors are made of concrete, but not because of the fire risk – the concrete adds extra weight to the building, which prevents it swaying too much and making the residents feel ill.

– The facade has been fireproofed and consists of elements which all have cavity barriers in the event of a fire in the cavity. In addition, there are cavity barriers over all the windows, adds Even Andersen.

The swimming pool is a reservoir
On the active side, the building has full sprinkler coverage with a reinforced sprinkler system which also covers the lowermost storeys of the facade in order to prevent incidents due to pyromania or criminality. The communal water supply is good and ensures an abundant supply of water under normal circumstances.

– If extra water is required, the swimming pool – which is part of the building and lies up and down the tower – functions as a reservoir. That is a rarity in Norway, says Even Andersen.

The building also has an automatic fire alarm system with a direct connection to the local emergency services and riser pipes in all stairwells, which have been dimensioned to enable the emergency services to fight the fire from just one of the tower’s stairwells. The stairwells are equipped with overpressure relief valves, and there is also a control room from which the emergency services can easily survey the building and see exactly where the alarm has gone off and where the sprinklers have been triggered.

– Building to a height with timber does not go without its risks, and you have to know what you are doing. Mjøstårnet is located in rural surroundings and it is completely different from building in, for example, the middle of the city where the risk of the fire spreading is different. So, even if it is possible to build to a height in timber, that doesn’t mean that it is always the right thing to do, concludes Even Andersen.


The Internet of Things and New Potentials Better Fire Safety or a Safety Risk?

New technologies and web connectivity open up new prospects for making everyday life and living safer. While the IoT, the Internet of Things, provides an opportunity for improving safety, it may also generate safety risks. Information security, in particular, often receives little attention, as the Fire Prevention Technology Development Group points out.

System control, which is increasingly web-based, and remote services are modern features of fire safety equipment as well. For example, reliability has improved along with the development of technology.

The integration of fire safety systems will become more commonplace and uncomplicated in the future. As products are entering the market, information security solutions are often overlooked .

New solutions are also being introduced to control heating, ventilation and air conditioning as this is seen as financially advantageous. The same applies to firefighting equipment.

If sensors and other new technologies, such as the IoT, were integrated, it would be possible to better anticipate accidents and save both during the installation of automation as well as in construction costs. The introduction of remote services can also bring benefits. They achieve savings by making time management more efficient, so long as the actions are correctly targeted from the outset, as well as bring about indirect savings from lower travel expenses.

– When it comes to the design of these safetyrelated products, their safety principles may have been inadequate. Only a few products meet national or international standards.

As regards IoT products connected with the fire safety, care must be taken to see to it that they meet the requirements of the authorities and the insurance companies, says Petri Mero, Head of Loss Prevention, Finance Finland.

Information security is often only identified at the technical level. When working with networked equipment attention must be paid to processes and systematic approaches as well as to preparedness and personnel training. Human skills are essential.

Intelligent fire alarm systems, for example, utilise IoT technology. In addition to sounding alarms locally, they also send alarms to smartphones. Consequently, the owner must make sure that the alarms will be relayed to the necessary recipients so that the information does not only remain inside the equipment or at the location.

Notifications can be relayed to equipment users, the maintenance organisation or the alarm centre. Occasionally marketing efforts make the misleading claim that information is sent from equipment at home to the Emergency Response Centre, for example.

In addition to intelligent fire detectors, it is also possible to network old smoke detectors so long as they are fitted with intelligent batteries. Both solutions can be controlled with smartphone applications. The most modern fire detection systems can be connected to the Internet so that they can be controlled via computer user interfaces from anywhere.

Even unexpected data may advance criminal activity.

System designers consider an uncomplicated and undemanding introduction into use and use of their product very important so as to make their solutions attractive to users. User-friendliness may cause security risks.

The programs of the IoT systems often require regular updates so as to protect the data they transmit. Also, that fact that operating systems in equipment are often connected to platforms, such as Android or IOS, makes them both userfriendly and vulnerable to risks.

Equipment in open networks always provides an easy target for third parties. This means that the user – the human – must be the key element responsible for updating equipment and programs, and for necessary safeguards such as up-to-date firewalls and secure networks

Data collection and management also generate risks for information and cybersecurity and for data protection.

– Even as trivial an issue as hacking into thermostats may provide valuable information to burglars; for example, it may reveal whether a family is at home or away on holiday.

If the shields are easily broken, the hacker will gain vast amounts of information such as whether the front door or the garage door is locked, etc. Furthermore, personal information, including credit card information, may be at risk. Open, hence vulnerable, equipment may be subjected to indirect “attacks”, in which case the individual piece of equipment is not the target of malicious activity. Unprotected equipment may be used for purposes such as overloading building automation systems, says Matti Helkamo, Director of New Business and Technology, Siemens.

Information security can be addressed at home and at the workplace by paying attention to the following points:

  • Functioning networks and secure signal strengths. Using the required network structures, firewalls and passwords.
  • Documented implementation and an identifiable system structure.
  • Appropriate and interoperable components are in use.
  • The user as well as and the reason for and time of using remote access are known.
  • There is a plan for remote access, and remote maintenance personnel are identified through access permits.

– Firefighting must be viewed from a wider perspective in which the evaluation of human behaviour and implemented technology can improve proactive fire prevention. As information processing capability keeps growing, equipment and the data they compile must remain both user-friendly and safe, says Lauri Lehto, Safety and Security Expert, Finnish National Rescue Association.

What is the Fire Prevention Technology Development Group?

The Fire Prevention Technology Development Group is a group of experts whose shared goal is to advance safety and to develop the service and maintenance, qualityand technical prospects of fire prevention technology. The environment is constantly developing and fire prevention must stay up-to-date to meet the new challenges.

Lauri Lehto
Safety and Security Expert
The Finnish National Rescue Association SPEK

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